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Sigma bonds occurs when two orbitals interact/overlap end-to-end, which typically leads to them having one region of shared electron density. Imagine a venn diagram where the two circles are the orbitals of two atoms and the overlapping region is the region of shared electron density. This middle shared region is the sigma bond. The s-s, s-p, and p-p overlap indicates which orbitals between the two atoms are interacting with each other to create this shared region of electron density.
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