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Must all coordination compounds include transition metals? What are some well-known examples of strong coordination compounds and their identifying properties? Must a ligand be a chelating ligand in order to bind cations or can other ligands also bond cations?
I can answer the first question, coordination compounds do not need to have a transition metal. For example, take BF3, a well known lewis acid. Boron is not a transition metal but can make coordinate covalent bonds, such as with F-.
Water forms hydrates with a lot of compounds meaning it is acting as a lewis base and donating an electron pair. A well-known hydrate is epsom salts, which is magnesium sulfate. Water also forms complexes with other metals like sodium ions and aluminum ions when water dissolves them. I don't know exactly what you mean by "strong coordination compounds" but a cool one is CoCl2 which is clear until heated, then it turns blue, and it was used as invisible ink back when people wrote letters. And I also don't know what the last part means, I think any ligand can bond to metal cations, but if you mean trap the metal then yeah the ligands are chelating so that the metal ion cannot do harm.
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