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You do need to memorize that chart in the course reader. In it, neutral ligands (ethylenediamine, ammine, etc) are listed and have oxidation numbers of 0. For the charged ligands the oxidation numbers are listed in the table as well.
Oxidation state is a term usually used to refer to an atom. Therefore, it is more correct to say "charge on the ligand." Oxidation state and the oxidation number on the metal have a similar meaning, but differ slightly. Oxidation number usually refers only to coordination compound metal while oxidation state can be calculated for any atom. When naming the coordination compound, you must always use roman numerals for the oxidation state/number of the central metal atom.
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