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Ligands are ions or molecules that bind to a central atom which makes up the coordination sphere. Ligands are the Lewis base in the interaction because they supply both electrons within the coordinate bond. They are significant because when the ligands are bound with the central atom, the transition metal in the compound has many oxidation states, meaning its good for electron transfer. Because of this, myoglobin is able to transport oxygen in muscle cells and hemoglobin can transport oxygen in blood, proving the biological importance of ligands.
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