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Ligands are lewis bases that donate an electron pair to a transition metal cation (lewis acid) and form a coordinate covalent bond with it. Multiple ligands can bond to the same transition metal cation, which forms a coordination complex. In terms of which ligands you need to know about, refer to "Naming Coordination Compounds" on the Chem 14A website.
Ligands are Lewis bases attached to the central atom or ion in a d-metal complex. They typically have 1 lone pair of electrons with which it bonds to the central atom or ion through a coordinate covalent bond. Ligands make up the coordination sphere of the central atom/ion and the number of points at which they are attached to the metal is known as the coordination number of the complex which the ligand is involved in.
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