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By reference to the periodic table, the Group 1 metals are more likely to lose an electron to become octet, then it has +1 oxidation state. However, because of relatively high ionization energy, the Group 7 non-metals will not lose electrons, instead, they usually gain an electron to become octet. Therefore, they usually have -1 oxidation state. These trends, however, will not be applied to transition metals since they usually have more than one oxidation states.
For coordination compounds, based on the charge of the overall compound, you can figure out the oxidation state of the central ion based on the known charges of the ligands and ions. For example, [Pt (NH3)5 Cl] Br3 has no net charge, so you know that the sum of all the charges must be 0. NH3 has no charge, Cl has a -1 charge, and Bromine has a -3 charge (-1 charge for each bromine atom). Therefore, the oxidation state of Platinum must be 4 because: 4 -1-3=0
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