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A strong acid or base is one which readily dissociates completely in water, and common examples include HCl and NaOH. Weak acids or bases only partially dissociated in water and a majority of the molecule will remain in its associated form when placed in water.
Strong acids fully dissolve into its ions in water, so they have a high concentration of ions in a solution. This, the bonds between the hydrogen atom and another atom of the molecule are weak. Ions are easily broken apart by strong acids. Weak acids partially dissociated into its ions in water, so they have a low concentration of ions in solution. Thus, bonds between the hydrogen atom and another atom of the molecule are strong.
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