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Because the oxygen molecule is very small and cannot reach far enough to make bonds. The reason why other molecules are polydentate is because they have long chain structures or are at least more spaced out and can reach closer to make more bonds.
As Dr. Lavelle mentioned, in order for a molecule to have a stable bidentate, it typically has to have a lone pair then two spacer atoms then a lone pair. H2O does not and therefore it is not large enough to wrap around and bond in two places.
Think of polydentate molecules having two different bonding sites on two different atoms. As mentioned above, "spacer" atoms are need to give the atoms adequate space to bind more than once. The two electron LP's on the oxygen of H2O do not provide enough space to form two bonds to a central atom.
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