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Cis- means on the cisplatinum means that Chlorine atoms on the platinum are on the same side. This allows the cisplatinum to bind to the guanines at two parts on the DNA structure. The Nitrogens on the guanene bases replaces the Cl- on the cis platinum. This process results in the inhibition of the DNA replication.
Cisplatin is used in chemotherapy for the treatment of cancer cells, which are characterized by rapid cell growth, because it can bind to DNA and prevent cell replication and thus stop cancer cells from growing. More specifically, cisplatin binds to the DNA base guanine. The nitrogens in guanine essentially replace the chlorine ligands that are attached to the transition metal in the center, platinum. The binding of cisplatin to the DNA strand then stops DNA replication and successful cell division.
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