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The concentrations of [H3O+] and [OH-] are equal because for water at any temperature, the only molecule you are starting off with is [H2O]. If one of the hydrogens from [H2O] leaves the original molecule and joins another [H2O] molecule, the new molecule becomes [H3O+] and the old one becomes [OH-]. This means that the hydroxide and hydronium ions must be created in equal quantities, meaning that they must be present in equal amounts in the solution.
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