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We can tell if it donates or accepts a proton by the manner it dissociates. For example, if we were given the salt NH3Cl we would decide this is a base due to the fact that its reaction with water would produce a hydroxide concentration. I find it easier to tell if you add water to it and see whether or not it makes either a hydroxide concentration or proton concentration.
By the brosted-lowry model, a molecule is an acid if it denotes a proton and produces hydronium ions after reacting with water, and a molecule is a base if it takes a proton to produce a hydroxide ion after reacting with water. Generally if a molecule has a nitrogen atom, it's lone pair can attract a hydrogen from water which makes it a base.
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