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The pH tells you how acidic or basic something is. So the values range from 0-14, 0 being the most acidic and 14 being the most basic with 7 being neutral. As you move away from the number 7 either going up or down, you become more acidic or more basic. You find it by finding the concentration of hydronium. Once you have that value take the -log of it and there you go. Make sure to remember if you are given the concentration of hydroxide to find the -log of that value but then to subtract it from 14 in order to get pH.
pH is a measure of the amount of free hydrogen and hydroxyl ions in the water. Water that has more H+ ions is acidic, but water that has more OH- ions is basic. pH is affected by chemicals in the water, so it can be indicative of chemical changes happening in water.
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