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Its useful to predict the direction of a reaction since you can find Q even if the system is not at equilibrium. If K is known, and you can measure Q, then you determine which side a reaction will favor until it reaches equilibrium. If Q<K, then the reaction will favor products until K is reached. If Q>K, then the reaction will favor reactants until K is reached.
Q, or the "reaction quotient", measures the relative amount of reactants and products at a certain time. It essentially describes a reaction when it's not in equilibrium and what direction will be taken for it for equilibrium to be restored (hence the favoring of a forward or reverse reaction)
To add on, since Q is the relative ratio of products to reactants at a given instant, you know the reaction shifts right if Q<K and shifts left if Q>K.When Q=K, the reaction is at equilibrium. To summarize, finding Q helps you determine what direction the reaction will proceed based on the ratio between products to reactants
Q expresses the relative ratio of products to reactants at a given instant not necessarily at equilibrium. This is mainly useful to compare to K in order to determine the direction of the reaction. When Q=K, the system is at equilibrium.
Q is the reaction quotient and tells us where the reaction is at currently relative to equilibrium. Note that for Q you do not need to use concentrations or partial pressures at equilibrium. However, for K we do. If Q<K product formation is favored and if Q>K reactant formation is favored. When Q=K the reaction is at equilibrium.
Q is the composition of a system at any time (even those other than equilibrium). It is an important indicator that tells you whether equilibrium lies in favor of products or reactants. when Q < K, the reaction will move toward the products, and if Q > K, the reaction will move towards the reactants, and if Q= K, the reaction is at equilibrium.
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