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A precipitate is just a solid that does not dissolve in an aqueous solution as a product. A primary example is AgCl, a white solid that will appear on the bottom of the beaker after a reaction has completed. With a precipitate, its ions cannot dissociate and a solid remains.
A precipitate usually forms when a molecule that can dissolve in water is present, and when the solution is saturated (it hits the maximum amount of dissolved solute), then the rest of the molecule that is added remains as a solid. This can also occur after a reaction and a non-soluble molecule is created.
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