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You find Q and K in the same way, by dividing the concentrations of the products by the concentrations of the reactants. However, K is the equilibrium constant, while Q is the reaction quotient, which is the constant of the equation at any time. Q can then be compared to K to find out whether the equation is shifting to the left or right (or favoring the reactants or products).
Adding onto what they all said, I’d like to relate this to Le Chatelier’s Principle. When pressure/volume/concentration change, it is Q that changes, not K. However, when temperature changes, then K changes.
K>Q and K<Q is significant because it helps us understand whether the reaction has reached equilibrium or not. Since Q (the reaction quotient) is calculated at a specific time during the span of a reaction, by comparing it to K we can see if the reaction has to form more products or reactants to reach equilibrium. If K>Q, the reaction will proceed to the products. If K<Q, the reaction will proceed to the reactants.
The significance of Q<K and vice versa is that it helps determine whether a reaction has reached equilibrium at a certain point in time. If it hasn't reached equilibrium (Q=K), than that means that the reaction will either favor the reactants or products in order to proceed towards equilibrium.
Comparing Q and K allows us to see whether or not the system is at equilibrium. If Q=K, then the system is at equilibrium. Otherwise, we can see if Q>K or if K>Q to determine whether the reaction favors the reactants or the products.
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