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The difference between a weak acid and a strong acid is the amount of it that dissociates in water. Not every Carboxylic Acid molecule will dissociate when it comes in contact with water whereas something like Hydrochloric Acid would have every molecule dissociate.
Although carboxylic acids are considered to be weak acids, it is also important to remember that the acid can become stronger if the groups attached to the carboxyl group have high electronegativities. However, they will not necessarily be a strong as a strong acids like HCl.
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