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HClO is a stronger acid than HBrO because Cl is a more electronegative element than Br, meaning it has a greater pull on electrons and thus can delocalize the negative charge of the acid's conjugate base (ClO^-) better than Br can in its conjugate base (BrO^-). This means that HClO's conjugate base ClO- is a more stable molecule than HBrO's conjugate base, signifying its greater strength in acidity. Thus, HClO is a stronger acid than HBrO.
Oxoacids will be more acidic if the anion formed is stabilized by electronegative atoms which delocalize the negative charge. Chlorine is more electronegative than bromine, which means it will more effectively delocalize the negative charge on the oxygen, yielding a more stable anion – this causes its greater acidity.
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