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As you go down a row, the bond becomes longer and therefore weaker than the bonds with elements above it. The longer bonds are due to larger nuclei, more core electrons shielding the valence electrons, and decreasing electronegativity. The longer the bond, the easier it is to break and dissociate in solution, so the stronger the acid. That's why HI, HBr, and HCl are strong acids, while HF is only a weak acid.
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