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I know that whenever there is a compound with a nitrogen that has a lone pair it can be identified as a base, but is there any characteristic like this that allows us to identify acids based on the compound's structure?
Compounds that have hydrogen atoms written separately in the formula usually indicate they are the terminal atom and most likely dissociate in water. A good example is CH3COOH. They could have written the compound as CH4COO, but writing it the former way indicates the H is attached at another location on the molecule. If you were given a Lewis structure, then you could look for spots where there is an O-H bond. O-H bonds on a molecule are more likely to interact with O-H bonds of the water molecules.
In a chemical equation in which acids and bases are reacting with water, you could identify an acid because their products tend to be either a hydronium ion or proton, while the products of bases are h usually hydroxide ions.
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