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Weak acids are characterized by short strong bonds. Strong Acids are characterized by longer weaker bonds. This is because if the bond is weaker/less stable it is more likely to donate an H+ which makes it a strong acid.
Some of the trends we see to tell the differences is stronger acids have lower pKa values, strong acids lose H+ easily and the resultant anion must be stable. With weaker (larger) bonds it is easier to remove the H+. Short bonds are stronger where we can see the smaller elements trend towards the upper right of the periodic table. Short, stronger bonds are less acidic. More electronegative oxoacids (upper right corner of periodic table) are more acidic since they are able to stabilize the O atom more effectively.
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