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A strong acid and base reaction will have equilibrium lie far to the right because they both dissociate almost completely into products. This means that at the end of the reaction, there will be more products than reactants. A weak acid and base will have equilibrium lie far to the left and at the end of the reaction there will be more reactants than products.
Strong acids and bases will completely dissociate in water whereas weak bases and acids only partially dissociate in water. However, it might be easier to just memorize strong acids and bases in order to identify between the two.
I believe a hint given in lecture too is that if you are given a Ka or a Kb in a question, you will automatically know that it is a weak acid or base since it shows that the substance does not dissociate completely.
I am not sure about bases, but for acids the longer the bond length, the stronger the acid because it is easier to lose an H+. Therefore, the larger the atom, the longer the bond length, the stronger the acid.
Another indication of acid strength is how stable the resulting anion is. This can be determined by examining the electron pulling ability of the anion involved. From the example given in class, HClO is a stronger acid than HBrO, as the higher electronegativity of Cl stabilizes the negatively charged O by withdrawing electron density.
Strong acids fully dissociate in solution, same with strong acids. As for specific acids, they're usually HCl, H2SO4, HI, HNO3, HBr, HClO4. Strong bases are usually hydroxide paired with cations from the first two groups.
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