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I understand that lewis acids and bases involve the donation and accepting of lone pairs but I still don't fully understand what this actually means? How do they donate or accept lone pairs? What does this look like?
If it helps you can also think of it in terms of protons or hydrogen atoms. For example if you have HCl in gas phase, it is a relatively stable molecule, but if you look at HCl in its aqueous phase, it loses the H atom and forms a Cl- ion. HCl (aq) + H2O(liquid) -> Cl-(aq) + H3O+(aq). HCl is an acid because it loses the proton/gains an electron pair. Hope that makes sense!
The donation and acception of lone pairs is essentially the movement of hydrogen. When hydrogen is moved across, the lewis acid gives off a proton and is therefore accepting a lone pair as it becomes negative. The lewis base that has now recieved a H+ is going to give off a lone pair as it becomes positive. Charges show the trends with the amount of lone pairs. Hope this helps!
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