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To expand, the strength of the acid (or base) is determined by how fully it ionizes in water and how stable the anion is, so weaker bonds like in HI make good strong acids because HI readily dissociates in water into H+ and I-, and I- is a stable anion (electronegative and polarizable).
When the Cl-, Br-, and I- anions are placed in water they are stable and remain in their state without pulling an H away from H20. Therefore they are known to be less electronegative (weaker bond), and a weaker bond is directly associated with a stronger acid.
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