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Conjugate bases and acids are pretty much the products which a reactant becomes after going through a reaction. If a substance is an acid as a reactant and accepts an electron pair in a reaction, it becomes a base on the product side of a chemical equation, making it a conjugate base. Generally the difference between the two is whether they have an H+ or not and you can differentiate the two accordingly.
Conjugate acids and bases exist in pairs, typically one on the left of the equation, and the other on the right of the equation. For example, in the equation H2SO4 + H2O → HSO4- + H3O+, H2SO4 donates an H+ and becomes HSO4-. In this case, We say H2SO4, relative to HSO4-, is conjugate acid since it donates an H+, and HSO4- is a conjugate base relative to H2SO4 since it accepts H+.
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