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The simplest way to tell that an acid/base is weak is if you are given an eq. constant. This automatically means it is weak because it is not 100% dissociated. Other easy ways include seeing a carboxylic acid group CH3COOH, which indicates an organic/weak acid.
HCl, HNO3, H2SO4, HBr, HI, HClO4, HClO3 are all the strong acids, and strong bases are most of the group one and two elements bound with hydroxide molecules. Alternatively, if you are given a pKa for an acid/base then it is likely weak, as this means that it does not fully dissociate in water and cannot be labeled strong.
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