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Usually this value is given to you as the molarity of the solution or you are given moles and volume of a certain solution and you have to find the molarity by dividing moles of solute by liters of solution to find the molarity to in turn plug into the pH equation.
To clarify, if you are dealing with a strong acid, the molarity of the acid will equal the molarity of the H3O+ in solution. So for example, if you were given a solution of HCl with molarity 0.20 M and were asked to calculate the pH of the solution, the molarity of the H3O+ ions in solution would also be 0.20 M and the pH would be determined using -log[0.20].
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