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When you get rid of the first proton, there is more of a negative charge, holding the rest of the protons in a stronger bond, therefore making it harder to dissociate. This makes it take more energy to break the bond and therefore makes the Ka smaller for each successive dissociation.
The Ka value for the first reaction does not involve any negatively charged ions in the example we did during lecture. This means the proton is not as tightly held as it will be in the second reaction, which involves a negatively charged ion. The proton will be more tightly held in the second reaction and the Ka2 value will be lower.
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