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You have to look at the equation as a whole or have it somewhat memorized. By looking at the whole equation, you identify which reactant is the electron donor which means it gains the hydrogen and that would be your lewis base. Then the other reactant has to be an electron acceptor and lose a hydrogen which makes it the Lewis base.
By drawing out the lewis structures, you can see the electron arrangement around the atom. If the atom can donate an electron pair (for example has lone pairs) then it is a lewis base. If the atom is likely to gain electrons, then it is a lewis acid.
Like the reply above, you can look at the structure, but for the bronsted definition of acid or base, you would look to see if the structure is likely to donate a proton, or a hydrogen ion. This would make it a bronsted acid. If it were to be able to accept a proton, or hydrogen ion, it would be a bronsted base.
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