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You identify acidic and basic salts by identifying what kind of ions they have. If a salt contains a cation of a strong base and an anion of a weak acid (like NaOCl), the anion (ClO-) will acts as a base and increase the pH (making the salt basic).
You can also look at the ions and see if they're conjugate acids/bases of strong or weak acids/bases. For example, if the ions are the conjugate acid and base of a strong acid and a strong base, then you will know the salt is neutral.
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