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A state property is basically a quantity, amount, numerical value that does not depend on how the substance being quantified/measured was prepared. So like temperature for example, the temperature does not differ based on how it got to that temperature where as something like work does depend on the 'path taken' since it is Force * Distance and distance is path dependent, hope this helps!
The easiest and most important thing to remember is that state properties are independent of the path taken (to establish property or value). They depend only on the final and initial values, which are all you need to solve. This is contrasted by path functions (like work and heat), which are dependent and require (multiple) integrals to solve.
State properties only rely on the values of the initial and final state. Other properties such as heat and work are not state properties because they do not measure "states" but they measure the energy required over a process, if that makes sense. For these type of properties, how the final state is reached becomes important. State properties are intrinsic to a system.
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