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I don't think there is a specific rule but I think it might jus be what makes more sense for that problem. For example, if it is a really big value it would make more sense to have units in kJ rather than J. I think unless it specifies it in the question it will probably be up to your own discretion.
Work=-pressure*change in volume. The units for that are kgm-1s-1m3. The meters cancel out through exponent rules to create the unit kgm2s-2. This equals a joule. Therefore, your answer should be in joules, unless all other units in the equation are multiplied by 1000. But you could convert the final answer after you have found it to kJ if it is most convenient.
It depends on what the question is specifically asking. However, it is crucial to make sure that as you are solving a problem, all the units are consistent (i.e., if you are using just Joules, make sure it is just Joules.)
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