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Basically if you look at the phase change curve, you can see that it takes energy to heat up the liquid to a gas at the same temperature. So that additional energy goes into burning your hand if it's steam that's hitting your hand.
Someone explained it to me like this: the energy required for water to go from a liquid to a gas is called the heat of vaporization, and when steam hits your skin, a lot of energy will be released as it condenses into a liquid
Steam hurts a lot more than just hot water because of the energy difference. Looking at the heating curve, steam (water in gas form) lies higher than hot water (water in liquid form; although it is hot water and "holds" more energy, it is still a liquid). When the steam hits your hand, the steam is undergoing an entire phase change from steam to liquid. All that energy is released. On the other hand, when hot water hits your hand, it will still hurt because there is energy being released, but it is not as drastic as a phase change.
Since temperature doesn’t change during phase change, for steam to become water again (when it hits your skin), it has to release a lot of energy, while still at 100 degrees Celsius, and all this energy goes into burning your skin.
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