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Most Stable Forms

Posted: Thu Jan 11, 2018 1:37 pm
by OliviaShearin2E
How do we know the most stable form of an element, such that standard enthalpy of formation would be zero for that element? For instance, I would assume the most stable form of water would be H2O(l) because it is found in most commonly in nature, but its enthalpy of formation is -285.83. Is the most stable form ice because of a structural reason?

Re: Most Stable Forms

Posted: Thu Jan 11, 2018 3:40 pm
by Clara Hu 1G
An example of when the enthalpy of formation is 0 is when two Oxygen atoms form O2. This is because O2 is the natural form of oxygen.

Re: Most Stable Forms

Posted: Fri Jan 12, 2018 10:29 am
by Jana Sun 1I
On a test, we would probably be given the standard enthalpies of formations we would need to solve the problem so with that information, we could probably deduce which ones are zero. In terms of understanding though, you bring up a good point with your water example. My guess is that it is due to structural reasons, because ice has more stable hydrogen bonds between water molecules than liquid water does.

Re: Most Stable Forms

Posted: Fri Jan 12, 2018 11:14 am
by Julia Cheng 2J
The standard enthalpy of formation is 0 when the element is in its purest form. So even though water is in liquid form commonly, its standard enthalpy of formation is not 0 because it's not in its purest form.

Re: Most Stable Forms

Posted: Fri Jan 12, 2018 11:23 am
by AtreyiMitra2L
For it to be the most stable form, it must be the one that is most pure. Some of them you just have to memorize. But there are some that you can figure out. All noble gases are most stable in the element phase as a gas. All diatomic gases (such as N2, O2, Cl2, F2, H2, etc.) are the most stable in this gaseous form. Carbon is most pure as graphite as a solid. The only two metals that are liquid in their standard state are mercury and bromine. The rest of the metals are solids. Based on everything I have given, water is not part of this list as it is not the most pure state. Consequently, it will not be 0. Just because water and ice are common, doesn't mean either is the most pure state. Therefore, neither will have a bond enthalpy of 0.