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A state function is a property that is not dependent on path taken to obtain that state, thus these state properties can be added or subtracted. Some examples given in lecture were E, P, V, T, Density, and Heat Capacity. To further explain this using volume, if you compress a gas in a container using a piston, the difference in the initial and final volume does not depend on how fast/slow the container is compressed. On the other hand, work and heat depend on the path taken between the reactants and products. An example of this would be seen if you imagined two people rock climbing. One person goes up the cliff face directly, while the other backslides a number of times. The person who backslides ends up doing more “work” but the two climbers end up making the same elevation change in the end, so thus work is a path-dependent function and not a state function.
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