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In an exothermic reaction, the system loses energy in the form of heat, so the value of delta H and U is negative. When the system undergoes an endothermic reaction, it gains energy in the form of heat, so delta H and U is positive.
Delta H is the enthalpy of a reaction. It is calculated by the difference in the energy of the products and the reactants. If the reaction gives a net release of heat, it is exothermic and delta H is negative (heat is released into the surroundings). If the reaction requires heat, it is endothermic, and delta H is positive.
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