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Water has an exceptionally high heat capacity. This is caused by the weak hydrogen bonds among water molecules in the liquid form, constantly forming and breaking as the molecules slide past each other. In the gas form, water molecules are too far apart to interact like this. In the solid form, the freedom of the molecules is restricted by the structure of the object.
The liquid form of water has a greater heat capacity than both the solid and gaseous phases because in the liquid phase, the network of hydrogen bonds is allowed to be free, and these intermolecular bonds cause liquid water to need more energy(heat) to be broken.
To add on, in liquid water, hydrogen bonds connect each water molecule to approximately 3.4 other water molecules. When water freezes into ice, it crystallizes into a rigid lattice that increases the space between molecules. Ice is less dense than water because of this.
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