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Extensive means that the properties can change based on the amount of substance (so conditions such as mass and volume), while intensive means that the properties are independent of the amount of substance (so mass and volume would not change an intensive value).
Extensive properties are reliant upon the amount of substance present. For example, mass is an extensive property. Intensive properties are not reliant upon the amount of substance that is present and is intrinsic to the substance. General heat capacity is extensive because it is not divided by the mass of the substance so it changes depending on how much of the substance is present. Specific heat capacity is measured "per gram" so it holds the same value no matter how much of the substance is present.
I am not entirely sure about extrinsic versus intrinsic though I think they are similar. Intrinsic properties are ones that do not depend on outside factors / amount of substance such as boiling point/density whereas extrinsic properties depend on outside factors / amount of substance such as weight or mass.
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