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This also makes sense if you think about the law of conservation of energy, because energy can never be created or destroyed, only transferred. Therefore if a system loses energy that means that its surroundings gain that energy and vice versa.
The q of the system is equal to the q of the surroundings meaning any energy gained or lost by the system is equal to any energy gained or lost by the surroundings. They also have opposite signs as if heat is lost by the system, it is gained by the surroundings and vice versa
If there was a system where no energy was lost or gained/with all perfect conditions, q (of the system) = -q (of the surroundings). This is so that if there is any change in one, the other will inversely adapt/change, since if there is heat lost by the system, the surroundings will gain that heat.
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