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Since diluted aqueous solutions have similar heat capacities as water, you can assume that the heat capacity of the calorimeter is the same as that of the solution. This would allow the qreaction to equal -qcalorimeter.
Due to the law of conservation of energy, the q of the system is equal to the -q of the surroundings. So when you use a bomb calorimeter, you combust the substance inside. Therefore, the q of the substance is equal to the -q of the bomb calorimeter.
The heat released from a reaction [q(reaction)] must go somewhere, so it is absorbed by the calorimeter. Therefore, if the temperature of the reaction decreases, then the heat from the reaction will go to the calorimeter, increasing the temperature of the calorimeter. Thus, q(reaction) = -q(calorimeter).
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