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When carbon chains are in the specific compositions mentioned in the course reader, the substituent is given an iso- prefix. In any other arrangement, iso- is not included in naming. For example, -< this skeletal structure substituent would be named isopropyl. Basically iso- is used when the middle carbon in the substituent is attached to the parent chain.
I think the prefix iso- is used when you see the structural pattern (CH3)2CH (two CH3 molecules are attached to the carbon of CH). The prefix neo- is used when you see the structural pattern (CH3)3C (three CH3 molecules are attached to a carbon). Iso- and neo- are structural identifiers and are part of the substituent name, so when you're alphabetizing, keep in mind that the prefixes are not ignored as they are with prefixes of substituents. Hope this helps!
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