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I am not sure what exactly you are referring to, but longer bonds are weaker and shorter bonds are stronger. That is why molecules with double bonds (shorter) are stronger than those with single bonds and thus have higher dissociation energies! Yay!
Also, the smaller the difference in electronegativity between the two bonded atoms, the shorter the bond. This usually happens closer to the right side of the periodic table amd creates covalent bonds. These bonds are stronger because the two atoms are "sharing" the electrons. Neither one will want to let them go.
Why do we even classify compounds with bonds lengths and strengths? I was led to believe that these are never a true depiction of such, in relation to concepts such as the average bond length of resonance structures
I don't believe you mean that it has a stronger bond but rather that it has the greater chance of dipole interactions or Van Der Waals forces between the atoms due to the extra charge of the atom. This can make a stronger interaction between the atoms or molecules of the compound.
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