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If you see where Cl is on the periodic table, it is on period 2, group 17. If we count how many valence electrons it has, (just counting from period 2) you see it has 7 valance electrons. The 7 electrons can either be lost, all 7 of them to form an octet that results in a charge of +7 or it can gain 1 electron 7+1=8 which forms a charge of -1 to fulfill the octet rule. Even though the question doesn't ask, typically for nonmetals they would gain electrons since nonmetals have higher electron affinity, having a charge of negative charge, in the case of Cl it's -1.
I don't get the last 2 parts of this question. 3.23 Chlorine can exist in both positive and negative oxidation states. What is the maximum (a) positive and (b) negative oxidation number that chlorine can have? (c) Write the electron configuration for each of these states. (d) Explain how you arrived at these values. Part c and d
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