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What exactly is the difference between polarizability and electronegativity? I know electronegativity is the pull of electrons and is the cause of dipole moments, but is polarizability only relevant in the induced dipole-induced dipole intermolecular force?
Electronegativity describes an element's ability to pull electrons closer towards its nucleus, which explains why electronegativity increases across a period (elements "want" electrons more to reach octet) and decreases down a group (atomic radius is larger so shielding causes a looser grip on electrons). Polarizability is basically how dipoles are formed. So, polarizable elements must be relatively flexible, so elements that are likely to have higher polarizability must also have a weaker pull on their electrons towards the central nucleus, therefore being less electronegative.
Basically if a molecule has a great amount of electronegative difference, they are usually polar. For example, H20. The electronegative difference is large, therefore more electrons go toward oxygen, giving the oxygen a partial negative, and hydrogen a partial positive(polar molecule).
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