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I think what you're thinking about is atomic radius, which increases as you move down and to the left on the periodic table. As atomic radius increases, the distance between the nuclei of atoms in a bond increases, so the bond gets longer.
The number of electrons in an atom do not necessarily determine bond strength, but the electrons involved in the bond do. For example, with more electron involvement in a triple bond, the atoms need to be closer to each other with a greater attraction in order to facilitate more covalent bonding. Because of this, a high number of bonding electrons would lead to a stronger bond.
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