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The main difference between an ionic and covalent bond is that an ionic bond is formed between a metal and a non-metal. A covalent bond is between two nom-metals. In a covalent bond there is a sharing of pairs of electrons between atoms and other covalent bonds.
The greater the difference in electronegativity between two atoms, the greater the ionic character of their bond. I think the number mentioned in class was that if the value of electronegativity is greater than 2, than the bond is considered generally ionic.
Inter- insinuates that the bond is between two molecules, while intra- insinuates that the bond is typically within the molecule between the separate atoms. The inter- forces are typically those of dipole-dipole etc. while the intra- are typically within covalent bonds.
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