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Simply put, catalysts are not consumed in a reaction whereas intermediates are. In other words, intermediates are formed and used up, where as catalysts are not consumed and are there from the beginning.
I believe that catalysts can be used up in one step of the reaction mechanism, but then produced again in a subsequent step so it cancels out. You can tell if something is an intermediate or catalyst by looking at the order in which it shows up; if it's a reactant first then product later, then it's a catalyst; if it's a product first then a reactant later, then it's an intermediate.
Adding on to this, if a molecule is cancelled out in step 1 on the reactants side of the equation when you are taking one of the approaches to solve the mechanism it is known as the catalyst, since it has been there from the beginning and is not consumed. You will be able to tell an intermediate, if it is produced in step 1 then it will be used up in step 2 on the reactants side.
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