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The number of energy levels that an electron can jump to depends on the number of energy levels an atom of the element has. The number of energy levels an atom has depends on its placement on the periodic table.
This contradicts a lot of what's already been posted here, but I always thought that an electron could be excited to any electron level from 1 to a theoretical infinity (e.g. completely removed from the atom) depending on the energy of the photon that it interacts with. I don't think the energy levels that electrons normally occupy (the ground state, indicated by the element's location on the periodic table) have any bearing on the possible energy levels that an electron can be excited to.
The amount of energy levels depends on what element we are talking about. Each element's atoms have different amounts of energy levels. For example, Hydrogen has electrons in the first energy level and Oxygen has electrons in the second energy level.
From what I recall Professor Lavelle saying is that each atom has unique electronic structures and energy levels, which is why they can only absorb or emit unique frequencies that are allowed by their unique structures.
He also mentioned that spectroscopic analysis of light given off by excited atoms shows only photons of particular energy are given off. This can be used to identify elements because like the above comment says, frequencies of light emitted and absorbed are unique for each element.
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