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When filling orbitals with electrons, according to the Aufbau Principle, you always use spin-up orbitals to fill each orbital. Once each orbital has at least one spin-up orbital, you add the spin-down orbitals to complete the paired electrons. This will end with opposite spin if the orbital is complete. If the orbitals are not complete and there is no need for adding spin-down electrons, the remaining spin-up electrons can be classified as parallel.
The electron spin is all determined by the quantum number Ms. There are two possible values for Ms which are 1/2 and -1/2. If Ms=1/2 then the electron is spinning upward, however if the Ms value is -1/2 the electron is spinning downward.
Ruby Richter 4G wrote:What is the significance of the direction in which an electron spins?
the directions an electron spins is merely for the purpose of qualitatively analyzing. the "spin up" and "spin down" don't literally mean the electrons are spinning in a clockwise or counterclockwise direction, but they stand for the fact that electrons that are paired will have opposing spins.
it will actually be impossible for us to see the exact direction of the spin at any single moment.
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