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A lone pair refers to the dots surrounding the elements in a lewis structure. If it was shared, it would be represented by a line connecting the two elements. To find the number of lone pairs, simply count the number of dots.
A lone pair would be the dots that aren't bonded but are still surrounding the element (those which don't have a line connecting to another element). The L in the formal charge equation would be the number of lone electrons for the element you are calculating it for.
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