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Since the formula is Valence electrons minus a value, it would follow that the closer that value is to the number of valence electrons the smaller the formal charge is. The value subtracted from valence electrons is the lone pairs and half of the shared electrons. If you think about it, this value would equal the valence electrons if an atom kept all of its electrons and equally shared with other atoms. This is why a lower formal charge indicated stability.
Since atoms are most stable when they share their valence electrons equally in bonding, and valence electrons is the first term in the formal charge formula, if the formal charge is 0, the previously stated will be fulfilled, making it more stable.
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